Snapshot: tax points for private consumers in Australia

Snapshot: tax considerations for private clients in Australia


Residence and domicile

How does an individual develop to be taxable in your jurisdiction?

In Australia there are 4 exams to search out out if a person is an Australian tax resident. These are outlined as follows.


Residency standing

The Commissioner of Taxation (the Commissioner) will take into consideration the subsequent:

  • bodily presence;
  • intention and performance;
  • the location of your family members;
  • enterprise or employment ties;
  • maintenance and website of belongings; and
  • social and dwelling preparations.


Inside the event an individual does not fulfill the residency check out, they may nonetheless be thought-about an Australian tax resident if any of the three statutory exams beneath are pleased:


The domicile check out

The domicile check out assesses an individual’s eternal residence. If the Commissioner is pleased an individual’s eternal home is located in Australia, the particular person will possible be liable to pay tax in Australia.


The 183-day check out

If an individual spends a minimal of 183 days per calendar yr in Australia, whether or not or not continually or not, the particular person will possible be thought-about an Australian tax resident.


The superannuation check out

An individual will possible be thought-about an Australian tax resident within the occasion that they, or their accomplice, is a contributing member of a Public Sector Superannuation Scheme of the Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme.

If the Commissioner is pleased an individual is an Australian tax resident, the particular person may be required to pay:

  • earnings tax;
  • land tax on any precise property owned by the particular person subject to exemptions for a principal place of residence;
  • gadgets and firms tax (GST); and
  • capital optimistic points tax (CGT).


What, if any, taxes apply to an individual’s earnings?

Australian tax residents are required to pay earnings tax on their personal taxable earnings (along with from employment, enterprise pursuits, dividends, perception distributions, abroad earnings and the like). The marginal earnings tax payment will enhance consistent with the extent of earnings earned. For the 2021–2022 financial yr, the marginal earnings tax costs are:


Taxable earnings

Tax on this earnings




19 cents for each A$1 over A$18,200


A$5,092 plus 32.5 cents for each A$1 over A$45,000


A$29,467 plus 37 cents for each A$1 over A$120,000

A$180,001 and over

A$51,667 plus 45 cents for each A$1 over A$180,000


The above costs do not embrace the Medicare levy of two per cent. The Medicare levy is a levy payable to fund Medicare, the nationwide healthcare provider in Australia.

Extreme income-earning folks may also be liable to pay a Medicare levy surcharge (MLS), an additional levy payable by individuals who attain a positive stage of earnings and wouldn’t have private medical medical health insurance. On this event, the federal authorities imposes an additional levy of calculated at roughly 1–1.5 per cent of an individual’s taxable earnings over and above the prevailing Medicare levy of two per cent.

The MLS encourages these that may afford private medical medical health insurance to amass acceptable properly being safety for themselves and their dependants, reducing the financial burden on Medicare.

Capital optimistic points

What, if any, taxes apply to an individual’s capital optimistic points?

An individual may be liable to pay capital optimistic points tax (CGT) upon disposal of an asset. Most belongings are subject to CGT, along with precise property and belongings purchased for personal enjoyment (akin to boats, dwelling items, cryptocurrency and electronics) over the price of A$10,000.

Some exemptions and reductions apply, along with:

  • Principal residence exemption: CGT should not be payable if an individual sells or disposes of a property that is their principal place of residence. For a property to be thought-about a principal place of residence, the particular person, their affiliate or their dependants might want to have lived in it for the entire interval of possession, provided the property has not been used as a place of work in the middle of the interval of occupation.
  • CGT low value: when an individual disposes of an asset, Australian tax residents are entitled to low value the capital obtain by 50 per cent, provided the asset has been held for no less than 12 months.


CGT may also be rolled over (or deferred) in positive circumstances, along with a change between spouses upon the breakdown of a marriage or relationship, or inside the event of loss or destruction of the asset.

Lifetime presents

What, if any, taxes apply if an individual makes lifetime presents?

Lifetime presents are known as inter vivos presents in Australia. Although there isn’t any such factor as a gift tax in Australia, counting on the character of the belongings gifted, there may be completely different tax implications of developing an inter vivos current.

There should not any quick tax penalties for presents of money or personal chattels. Nonetheless, for presents of dutiable belongings akin to precise property or shares, there may be tax penalties akin to stamp obligation or CGT, calculated within the market value of the asset gifted. Which of the occasions (donor or donee) is liable to pay the tax on a gift will depend on the sort of tax triggered.

CGT is triggered and payable by the donor upon the gifting of dutiable belongings. The capital obtain on belongings held in additional of 12 months will possible be discounted by 50 per cent for Australian tax residents. Nonetheless, the entire obtain is taxable upon the gifting of belongings held for decrease than 12 months.

Stamp obligation costs fluctuate between states and territories in Australia and is payable by the donee.


What, if any, taxes apply to an individual’s transfers on dying and to his or her property following dying?

There should not any inheritance or property taxes payable in Australia. The licensed personal guide of an property will possible be accountable for lodging a tax return on behalf of the deceased for the yr of their dying, often called a date of dying return. Subsequently, an property tax return is required to be lodged for earnings earned by an property for each financial yr until the property is completely administered. There isn’t a such factor as a tax payable for transmission of belongings from the property to beneficiaries. Nonetheless, if an property asset is purchased to a third event, there may be CGT payable by the property upon disposal of the asset.

Precise property

What, if any, taxes apply to an individual’s precise property?

Land change obligation (stamp obligation), land tax, council costs and capital optimistic points tax (CGT) are the first taxes that apply to an individual’s precise property.

Stamp obligation is tax payable upon acquisition of precise property. Stamp obligation is calculated based totally on the dutiable value of the property and whether or not or not any concessions or exemptions may be discovered. Completely completely different costs of stamp obligation are usually payable by abroad residents. Concessions and exemptions may be present in quite a few circumstances, along with for eligible first residence customers and in numerous circumstances akin to transfers between spouses (or ex-spouses) or between trusts and beneficiaries.

An annual land tax is normally payable on the taxable value of precise property. An individual’s principal place of residence is normally exempt from land tax.

Council costs are a tax payable to the municipal council, to cowl costs of native authorities firms akin to waste administration and the like. Council costs are calculated based totally on an analysis of capital improved value undertaken by the municipal council.

CGT is payable by the vendor upon the sale or disposal of dutiable property aside from a principal place of residence. A 50 per cent low value of any taxable obtain is on the market on the disposition of dutiable belongings held in additional of 12 months. Nonetheless, the entire obtain is taxable for any belongings held for decrease than 12 months. CGT may be rolled over (or deferred) in positive circumstances, along with a change between spouses upon the breakdown of marriage or relationship, or inside the event of loss or destruction of the asset.

Non-cash belongings

What, if any, taxes apply on the import or export, for personal use and pleasure, of belongings aside from cash by an individual to your jurisdiction?

There are usually no taxes payable on the Australian border for gadgets imported with a value decrease than A$1,000. This excludes tobacco, tobacco merchandise and alcoholic drinks.

Import taxes apply to gadgets over the price of A$1,000 and an import declaration must be lodged with the merchandise being imported into Australia.

All gadgets exported from Australia must be reported to the Australian Border Energy using each an Export Declaration or an exemption code.

Objects that are exempt from export declaration embrace:

  • personal outcomes;
  • pets;
  • gadgets with a value of decrease than A$2,000;
  • some gadgets briefly imported beneath half 162A of the Customs Act 1901 (Cth);
  • Australia Publish or diplomatic baggage of mail;
  • Australian aircraft and ships’ spares;
  • navy gadgets of any value that are the property of Australian authorities for use overseas by Australian Defence Forces;
  • Australian dwelling cargo; and
  • containers for the worldwide carriage of cargo and ships’ outlets.


There should not any taxes on exports that do not require an export declaration.

Totally different taxes

What, if any, completely different taxes may be considerably associated to an individual?

Medicare levy, gadgets and firms tax (GST) and CGT are usually the first taxes related to an individual aside from earnings tax.


Medicare levy

The Medicare levy primarily funds Australia’s public properly being system. Together with the marginal earnings tax costs of tax, an additional 2 per cent of an individual’s taxable earnings is utilized in route of the Medicare levy. Reductions or exemptions may be obtainable counting on the particular person’s circumstances or that of their accomplice. A Medicare levy surcharge of an additional 1 to 1.5 per cent may also be imposed for better earnings earners who do not preserve private medical medical health insurance.


Objects and restore tax

GST is compulsory tax included inside the worth payable for gadgets and firms in Australia. Firms with a turnover of over A$75,000 must be registered for GST and the pace in the intervening time payable is 10 per cent. Major meals, some education, medical and healthcare companies and merchandise are exempt from GST.


Capital optimistic points tax

Together with earnings tax, CGT is payable by folks on the capital obtain from disposing of dutiable belongings akin to precise property or shares. The amount of the capital obtain is included as part of an individual’s taxable earnings and taxed at marginal earnings tax costs. The amount of capital obtain is discounted by 50 per cent low value the place the asset disposed of has been owned for no less than 12 months and the place the proprietor is an Australian resident.

Trusts and completely different holding autos

What, if any, taxes apply to trusts or completely different asset-holding autos in your jurisdiction, and the way in which are such taxes imposed?

Belongings in Australia are ready to be owned by an individual particular person, by trustees on perception and via companies.

Trusts are recognised in Australia. Although a perception itself should not be a separate licensed entity, the trustee is the licensed entity which holds the belongings on perception for a beneficiary or class of beneficiaries. A trustee may be each a company or an individual. A trustee is accountable for dealing with the administration and administration of a perception along with its tax affairs. Counting on the powers provided by the governing perception deed, the trustee might elect to construct up earnings or make distributions in each financial yr. If a trustee elects to construct up earnings, this earnings is taxable on the very best marginal payment of 45 per cent. Alternatively, if the trustee declares a distribution of the earnings to an eligible beneficiary of the assumption, and the beneficiary turns into ‘presently entitled’ to the earnings, this earnings is taxed by the arms of the beneficiary on the related marginal earnings tax costs. A beneficiary may be each an individual, a company or one different perception.

Corporations are subject to a tax payment of 30 per cent on taxable earnings other than ‘base payment entities’ which might be subject to the diminished tax payment of 25 per cent for the 2020/2021 financial yr. Base payment entities are companies with an combination turnover of decrease than A$50 million and 80 per cent or a lot much less of their assessable earnings is passive earnings akin to royalties and rent, curiosity earnings, or an internet capital obtain.


How are charities taxed in your jurisdiction?

Charities in Australia must be endorsed by the Australian Taxation Office to be eligible for earnings tax exemptions. Concessions are moreover obtainable to endorsed charities in each state or territory which embrace earnings tax exemptions, GST concessions and fringe revenue tax concessions.

To be endorsed, the charity might want to have an Australian enterprise amount, be a registered charity with the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Payment and meet positive requirements referring to the sort of concessions sought.

Anti-avoidance and anti-abuse provisions

What anti-avoidance and anti-abuse tax provisions apply inside the context of non-public client wealth administration?

Anti-avoidance provisions in Half IVA of the Earnings Tax Analysis Act 1936 (Cth) apply to schemes the place an individual obtains a revenue from a scheme that may have in another case not been obtainable and the scheme was entered into for the one or dominant operate of buying the tax revenue.

Widespread tax avoidance schemes embrace these the place the taxpayer is able to in the reduction of their taxable earnings, enhance deductions in direction of their earnings or avoid tax and completely different obligations completely.

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