I have been requested, for the benefit of the ultimate physique of residents, to supply a written opinion as to the LEGAL VALIDITY of oral current, the requirement if any of registration and stamp accountability, the provisions of the GHMC Act related, the provisions of Muslim Authorized pointers (Muslim Authorized pointers is commonly often called Mohammedan Authorized pointers; the expressions will most likely be taken as interchangeable) which enable oral transfers, associated judgments, and so forth. The equal is given beneath, as my thought-about LEGAL OPINION.
Quite a few statutory provisions and judgments govern the matter in a clear technique. These are:
Change of Property Act – s.9 : A change of property is also made with out writing in every case via which a writing should not be going to be expressly required by authorized pointers.
Change of property Act – s.129 : Nothing on this chapter… (chapter on “Objects” from secs. 123 to 129 of the T P Act) … shall be deemed to affect any rule of Mohammedan Authorized pointers.
In current current of possession is essential. Registration would not treatment defect – AIR 1960 MYSORE 97, AIR 1971 HIMACHAL PRADESH 5
A current by a Mohammedan should alter to the provisions of Mohammedan authorized pointers – AIR 1928 PRIVY COUNCIL 108
Writing should not be going to be needed for a sound current inter vivos (i.e., amongst dwelling of us) amongst Muslims, nonetheless there ought to be current of possession primarily based completely on the character of the property given – AIR 1966 SUPREME COURT 1194
Accepted ideas enunciated by the Supreme Courtroom docket docket docket cannot be disregarded on the underside that information are normally not an equal – AIR 1980 KARNATAKA 66,69
Obiter Dicta (i.e., even passing observations) of Supreme Courtroom docket docket docket binding on all courts – AIR 1977 ALLAHABAD 370
Doc of Reward executed by a Mohammedan recording a gift made primarily based completely on the three circumstances laid down by Muslim Authorized pointers is merely proof of a completed current and as such should not be going to be compulsorily registerable and is admissible in proof nonetheless secs. 17 and 49 of the Registration Act – AIR 1962 ANDHRA PRADESH 199 (Full Bench)
A mere memorandum of components already transacted would not embody the current and subsequently no registration is important – AIR 1971 CALCUTTA 162
It may very well be seen that applicable from 1922 Privy Council (Indian Appeals) to the present, the authorized pointers has held oral objects respectable the place Muslim Authorized pointers ideas had been questioned:
The Privy Council in Mohammad Abdul Ghani and Anr. v. Fakhr Jahan Begam and Ors., (1922) 49 Indian Appeals 195 declared the following requirements for a sound hiba or current beneath Muslim authorized pointers – 1) expression on the part of the donor of should current; 2) acceptance of the donee, each implied or expressly; and three) the taking of possession (each exact/bodily or constructive) of the topic provides of the current by the donee.
All via the matter of Hafeeza Bibi and Ors. v. Farid (Ineffective) by L.Rs. and Ors., AIR 2011 SC 1695, the judgement and order dated thirteenth September 2004 handed by the Extreme Courtroom docket docket docket of Andhra Pradesh holding an unregistered current deed to be invalid, was challenged. The Supreme Courtroom docket docket docket whereas recognising and reiterating the three requirements of a sound current beneath Muhammadan Authorized pointers i.e. (i) declaration of the current by the donor; (2) acceptance of the current by the donee and (3) current of possession acknowledged that the ideas of Muhammadan Authorized pointers do not make writing crucial to the validity of a gift. An oral current fulfilling the entire three requirements makes the current full and irrevocable.
The apex courtroom docket seen: “In our opinion, merely on account of the current is diminished to writing by a Muslim as a replacement of it having been made orally, such writing would not develop to be an correct doc or instrument of current. When a gift would possibly very correctly be made by Muslim orally, its nature and character should not be going to be modified ensuing from it having been made by a written doc. What’s needed for a sound current beneath Muslim Authorized pointers is that three crucial requisites ought to be fulfilled. The form is immaterial. If the entire three crucial requisites are absolutely fully glad constituting respectable current, the transaction of current would not be rendered invalid on account of it has been written on a plain piece of paper. The excellence that if a written deed of current recites the factum of prior current then such deed should not be going to be required to be registered nonetheless when the writing is contemporaneous with the making of the current, it ought to be registered, is inappropriate and would not seem to us to be in conformity with the rule of points in Muslim Authorized pointers.”
Rasheed Khan vs Sheikh Kabir on 24 April, 2017, WP 8777 of 2015 para 12:
As per the foundations laid down in Hafeeza Bibi [Supreme Court, Hafeeza Bibi and others Vs. Shaikh Farid (AIR 2011 SC 1695)] it is clear like noon day that contained within the Mohammedan Authorized pointers, for the goal of determining whether or not or not or not or not the current was Hiba, three crucial substances ought to be there. These are (i) declaration of current by the donor, (ii) acceptance of the current by the donee and (iii) current of possession.
In para 29 of the judgment in Hafeeza Bibi the Apex Courtroom docket docket docket opined that the excellence that if a written deed of current recites the factum of prior current then such deed should not be going to be required to be registered nonetheless when the writing is contemporaneous with the making of the current, it ought to be registered, is inappropriate and would not seem to us to be in conformity with the rule of points in Mohammedan Authorized pointers. In para 34 of the judgment of Hafeeza Bibi the Apex Courtroom docket docket docket, contained in the information and circumstances of the case, examined and situated that the aforesaid three substances of declaration, acceptance and provide is likely to be discovered.
All via the matter of Mohammed Yusuf s/o Mohammed Ibrahim v. State of Maharashtra and Ors, 2015 (1) BomCR 740, the stamp accountability demand uncover of Sub-Registrar and Stamp Collector was challenged. The Bombay Extreme Courtroom docket docket docket held that stamp accountability demand as raised by the impugned stamp accountability uncover was unrecoverable since stamp accountability on oral current made by a Muslim in favour of a donee cannot be levied. It was further acknowledged that there’s no such issue as a such challenge as a provision for levying stamp accountability on an oral current made by any Muslim.
There are many various judgements, not cited right correct proper right here as not needed.
Para/Sec. 147, PRINCIPLES OF MOHAMMEDAN LAW, Mulla, 18th Model, 2nd Reprint, Net web internet web page 154 : WRITING NOT NECESSARY : Writing is NOT crucial to the validity of a gift each of movable or immovable property.
Para/Sec. 149, PRINCIPLES OF MOHAMMEDAN LAW, Mulla, 18th Model, 2nd Reprint, Net web internet web page 157 : THREE ESSENTIALS OF A GIFT: It is essential to the validity of a gift that there must be (1) a declaration of current by the donor; (2) an acceptance of the current, specific or implied, by or on behalf of the donee; and (3) current of possession of the subject of the current by the donor to the donee as talked about in Sec. 150. If these circumstances are absolutely fully glad, the current is full.
Para/Sec. 150, PRINCIPLES OF MOHAMMEDAN LAW, Mulla, 18th Model, 2nd Reprint, Net web internet web page 157 : DELIVERY OF POSSESSION : It is essential to the validity of a gift that there must be current of such possession as the subject of the current is inclined.
HYDERABAD MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS ACT 1956: FORMS:
Selection 1 beneath half 208 of Act, of Uncover of Change when Change Effected by Instrument – remaining column discovering out “If instrument has been registered, the date of registration” exhibiting that the instrument NEED NOT BE NECESSARILY A REGISTERED ONE.
Selection 2 beneath half 208 of Act, of Uncover of Change when Change Effected OTHERWISE THAN BY INSTRUMENT – exhibiting from the very title that there NEED NOT EVEN BE A WRITTEN INSTRUMENT (as contained within the case of Objects by Muslims).
Sec. 207 HMC Act 1956 : Uncover… of change of title : At any time when… title is transfered, the exact specific explicit particular person whose title is so transfered shall, inside three months from date of execution of instrument of change, or its registration IF or not it is registered, OR EFFECTING THE TRANSFER IF NO INSTRUMENT BE EXECUTED, give uncover of change to the Commissioner.
Sec. 208 HMC Act 1956 : Uncover to be in Selection 1 or 2 as related of Schedule F.
The above extracts current that:
A: The HMC Act 1956 does not require that any change be by instrument.
B: The Registration Act does not require a memorandum of a gift made orally by a Muslim to be registered.
C: The ORAL current by a Muslim is respectable if there’s (i) an present, (ii) an acceptance, (iii) current of possession.
ALL these circumstances stand absolutely fully glad contained within the on the spot case.
Attributable to this actuality, it is clear that established place of authorized pointers is that an oral current (hiba) by a Muslim, should not be going to be required to be in writing and is respectable if its three acknowledged substances are present. If there’s writing made, recording the oral current, such writing would not require registration. Moreover the HMC Act itself, even the place there’s an instrument, permits for circumstances the place the equal is NOT registered, and it permits for transfers with none instrument the least bit.
The title to property thus transferred would not bear from any vitiating ingredient, and subsequently there’s no such issue as a such challenge as a bar or obstacle contained within the transfers validly effected in accordance with Muslim Authorized pointers along with Change of Property Act being utilized in full, and mutations effected. The Registration Act, as above, should not be going to be related.
The Municipal Company, itself a creature of the authorized pointers, can’t refuse to solely settle for these, as that will most likely be exhibiting reverse to settled ideas enunciated even by the Hon’ble Supreme Courtroom docket docket docket, as moreover exhibiting in opposition to the statute, along with the very Act and licensed pointers beneath which the Company itself decisions.
All via the context of the principle of estoppel embodied partially 115 Indian Proof Act (“when one explicit specific explicit particular person has by act omission or declaration intentionally prompted or permitted one completely totally different explicit specific explicit particular person to contemplate a element to be true and to behave upon such notion, neither he nor his data in curiosity shall be allowed, in any swimsuit or persevering with between himself and such explicit specific explicit particular person or his representatives in curiosity, from denying the precise reality of that state of affairs”) subsequently, all of us claiming beneath the donor is likely to be estopped from making any declare the least bit inconsistent with the contents of the aforesaid paperwork. Thus no explicit particular person can draw again the information set out contained within the talked about paperwork, and draw again title which may’t be questioned even by the earlier proprietor or any explicit specific explicit particular person claiming beneath him.
Additional, half 41, Change of Property Act says “the place with the consent specific or implied, of people contemplating immovable property, a person is the ostensible proprietor of such property and transfers the equal for consideration, the change shall not be voidable on the underside that the transferor was not authorised to make it geared up that the transferee after taking low cost care to look out out that the transferor had vitality to make the change, has acted in good faith”. Thus on account of the earlier proprietor has expressly indicated transferee to be the proprietor of the property in question, and the talked about transferee transfers the equal for consideration, for my part such a matter is likely to be one the place the property has marketable title vesting contained within the donee with respectable rights passing to any transferee from him.
Shafeeq R. Mahajir is a Hyderabad-based nationally acknowledged lawyer